The name Laertes is quite clearly taken from the name of Odysseus's father, but the connection beyond name is quite obscure.
It seems quite clear that "does not divide the Sunday from the week" means the shipwrights are not taking their Sundays off. This would be, in religious times such as these, an affront to God.
In some versions of the play "Polack" reads "pole-ax," implying that Hamlet struck the ice with his weapon.1 In the context, this might seem to make more sense.
"Parle" here, also spelled "parley" or "parlé" means talk or discussion. It comes from the French "parler," meaning "to talk."